Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)
A vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) sends regular, mild pulses of electrical energy to the brain via the vagus nerve. This device is similar to a pacemaker. There is no physical involvement of the brain in this surgery and patients generally cannot feel the pulses.
It is important to keep in mind that VNS is a treatment option limited to select individuals with epilepsy or treatment-resistant depression.